Most broadcasters choose the MP4 format because it’s compatible with a wide range of devices. HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) is a protocol that splits video streams into chunks that are transferred and reassembled within the user’s video player. But since there’s players that support playback, it’s obviously possible to decode the stream on the client side. The pains of Cross Origin Resource Sharing. Below you can find an example manifest which rotates the encryption key every two segments: #EXTM3U#EXT-X-TARGETDURATION:10#EXT-X-KEY:METHOD=AES-128,URI="https://security.theoplayer.com/sequence-1.key"#EXTINF:10.0,http://media.theoplayer.com/video1/sequence-1-segment-1.ts#EXTINF:10.0,http://media.theoplayer.com/video1/sequence-1-segment-2.ts#EXT-X-KEY:METHOD=AES-128,URI="https://security.theoplayer.com/sequence-2.key"#EXTINF:10.0,http://media.theoplayer.com/video1/sequence-2-segment-1.ts#EXTINF:10.0,http://media.theoplayer.com/video1/sequence-2-segment-2.ts#EXT-X-ENDLIST. As you can see, the CMAF and CENC specs have lead to confusion and fragmentation in the streaming … Video encryption allows broadcasters to scramble their video content using a secure algorithm and transmit the data to viewers. The Wowza Streaming Cloud™ service allows you to apply AES-128 encryption to HLS streams. In this article, we will outline the most popular method for content protection with the HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) protocol: AES-128 content encryption. It’s a part of cryptography, which is a field of study devoted to the secure communication of information or data. Encryption is a method for masking data so that only authorized users can decrypt and access a file. The stream can be protected by AES encryption, the player does not need to be further configured. These separate streams are split into 2 to 10-second segments and indexed in a manifest file. ABR streaming is crucial for broadcasters that want to offer the best viewing experience possible for their viewers. Furthermore, it is the basis of most of the DRM systems available, for example Microsoft Playready, Widevine and Verimatrix. ... Safari can play back AES encrypted HLS natively without any extra step. We did not see that the EXT-KEY was without the "METHOD=" string as the Draft Pantos required, and as in the IPOD/AD it was working previously we did not suspect of that. While many broadcasters focus on encryption, video protection is just as important. Each step of security, from AES-128 to HLS Encryption to DRM, adds an extra layer of protection when it is used for streaming premium videos. It does not provide a high level of security as the URL might leak or could be intercepted on the network. There are two extremes in which this tag can occur: One time on top of the manifest. That’s because, Data breaches, unauthorized video sharing, and hacks, therefore, can be a substantial cost for many companies. Achieving low latency with Low Latency DASH. Moreover, Dacast relies on HTTPS to deliver video streams to viewers to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks and keep their financial information safe. Protecting this resource is up to the publisher itself. Dacast has been nominated as the best small/medium business platform in the, 2019 Streaming Media Readers’ Choice Awards. 2) The Access Key stored in the FV Player Pro settings is set only once, but the Encryption Key is different for each transcoding job, therefore for each HLS stream 3) The point of HLS is that it will automatically switch to optimal quality based on the viewer’s bandwidth and the device he’s using, so you don’t have to worry about that. AES Encryption. The following are general steps for protecting your assets with FairPlay by using the Media Services license delivery service, and also by using dynamic encryption. Xilinx Vivado HLS. A protected block of audio is typically an audio frame; H.264 video protected blocks are the body … using a reliable video streaming solution. To encrypt content. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a fast and secure form of encryption used to keep the data safe from hackers or pirates. An HTTP referrer is a metadata that identifies a website that has linked to a particular video. Such as ExoPlayer, it only support AES-128 right now. The Wowza Streaming Cloud™ service allows you to secure HLS streams using the external method of AES-128 encryption. Alternatively, each segment of a stream can be encrypted with a different key. This method is supported directly on devices running iOS 6.0 and … Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a block cipher that encrypts and decrypts data in 128-bit blocks. HLS streams, therefore, are supported by nearly every device from tablets to laptops and smart TVs. In encrypted streams, a protected block is identified over which the protection process is completed. Video streaming requires sending enormous amounts of data to viewers. Nimble Streamer supports variety of features for HLS, including big feature set for live streaming.In order for HLS to support secure streaming, the initial HLS RFC has a description of protection mechanism based on AES-128 encryption.This allows covering Digital Right Management (DRM) use cases.Nimble Streamer has now encryption support. It is also necessary to have a look at the security of the decryption key. That’s why protecting video content and securely delivering streams to users should be a broadcasting best-practice. Click "Apple HLS", then 2. click "DRM encryption". As a C developer, i can´t support much JS, but can spend some infos about sample-aes and can help with the implementation in JS. It creates a multi-bitrate HLS master playlist from one or more MP4 files, including support for encryption, I-frame-only playlists, and subtitles. Media Services also provides the key delivery service that delivers encryption keys to authorized users. Thanks again! These are standardized methods for transmitting video and audio data over the Internet as a continuous stream rather than a single file download. I will keep you posted on the solution. The HLS specification mentions only one aspect of key retrieval: the URL from which the key can be loaded should be a part of the manifest file. Click the button to go to our dedicated AES-128 demo page. Video content is invaluable for most brands, but if data gets into the wrong hands, it can be devastating. That’s why it’s crucial to break down videos into smaller files so that playback can start faster and there’s less wasted data. Why Does Protecting Video Content Matter? Before each segment with a different URL. There is often a debate over which key length to use for AES: 128-bit or 256-bit. To get around this problem we use what is known as an initialisation vector (IV). Most often, we see a number of different approaches to protecting the decryption key: - Protecting the manifest: This relies on hiding the URL to the decryption key. by its own with AES. With AES-128 content protection, key retrieval has been kept simple, making it easy to implement. WideVine is the one of the DRM schemes defined by Google. A key allows you to decrypt a single segment, which contains only a few seconds of media information. AES-128 uses a key length of 128 bits (16 bytes). Encryption method: AES-128; 4. It also allows for the usage of initialisation vectors to optimise the protection. Larger key sizes also require more computing power, but most modern devices can handle decrypting AES-256 without performance issues. I am newbie in using Streaming Server. When using AES encryption with HLS streaming, it’s crucial to exchange the secret keys over HTTPS. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. For HLS AES encryption a CEK (Content Encryption Key) and a license acquisition URL (the location where the player retrieves the key) are needed. This is the area on which many DRM technologies focus. Here are four security features to look for in a video hosting platform. [hls,applehttp @ 0357afe0] SAMPLE-AES encryption is not supported yet [hls,applehttp @ 0357afe0] Failed to open segment of playlist 0 Quote . Turn on DRM encryption.. For CMAF and Apple HLS output groups, choose the encryption method. For each encrypted stream type a protected block is identified, over which the protection process is performed. Where zapping... Apple's Protocol Extension for Low-Latency HLS - what you need to know. Looking for a non-flash player which can play AES-128 encryption videos. Then an. That’s why it should be the priority of every broadcaster to offer secure streams and store video content safely using a reliable video streaming solution. Between these two extremes, you are free to choose your own frequency of refreshing the encryption keys. SampleAES works by encryption … The usage of AES encryption recently became part of the common encryption standard for MPEG-DASH as well. I'm the beginner of how to encryption. There are many different types of encryption algorithms but HLS only supports AES-128. The encryption is applied on-the-fly, so there is no preprocessing involved. If you don't need to encrypt your video, you can skip to step 17. Delivering low latency, low bandwidth, at scale. Many broadcasters encrypt not only stored video content, but also streaming video to prevent unauthorized third-parties from accessing the content in transit. is a block cipher that encrypts and decrypts data in 128-bit blocks. The asset delivery protocol (for example, MPEG-DASH, HLS, Smooth Streaming, or all). In order to understand this, let's look at what AES-encryption really is. An introduction to HLS is available here. This means all segments are encrypted with the same decryption key. Get in contact with us today. Within the Dacast platform, it’s straightforward to add passwords to live streams, VOD content, or entire playlists. MPEG-DASH with CMAF supports both AES-128 CTR cenc or AES-128 CBC cbcs modes. In the DRM box, select the following properties: 3. The stream can be protected by AES encryption, the player does not need to be further configured. By graphics in forum Video Streaming Downloading Replies: 0 Last Post: 14th Jun 2014, 17:25. In this case, verify that the key type is set to AES_128 for the GenerateDataKey operation. Data breaches, unauthorized video sharing, and hacks, therefore, can be a substantial cost for many companies. Dacast has been nominated as the best small/medium business platform in the 2019 Streaming Media Readers’ Choice Awards because of the company’s commitment to offering a robust and security online video platform for its users. As the first step, you will have to create as many 128-bit CEKs as you will need (2, in the below example). that supports HLS encryption for video on demand (VOD) content. Try Dacast out and see if it fits your needs for secure video delivery. This document describes a sample-level encryption format for several types of elementary streams that can be carried in MPEG-2 transport streams ISO/IEC 13818-1 and MPEG elementary audio streams. Our team of experts will be glad to help you. In previous blogs we’ve covered how the LL-HLS spec has evolved and changed, as well as how it actually works. —may have specific regulations or censorship limiting who can view certain types of content. While the HLS supports AES-128 encryption, there are two different ways to implement the standard in practice. The options for enabling encryptions are stored in the server manifest file. AES for HLS is used in chain cipher mode, which means each block is encrypted using the ciphertext of previous block. Hi Mark, Thanks a Lot! A protected block of audio is typically an audio frame; H.264 video protected blocks are the body of … Sample AES encryption for HLS does not use a key to the identify the content that is encrypted (often called a 'KID'). At the beginning, you need a stream URL. That’s why we offer a risk-free trial for 30-day. With the 11.2 iOS release, Apple has enabled FairPlay DRM support for their Safari browsers on mobile devices by... Customers Vote THEOplayer the Best Video Player. In general, the more frequently keys are rotated or refreshed, the more secure the video content will be. (Please fill your own info into parts of the text marked with red) 16. The first question when dealing with content protection is often: "How safe is this protection?". HLS Dynamic Encryption with AES 128 & Safari Support. For example, geographical regions—such as the. AES-128 – The entire HLS chunk is encrypted using AES-128 encryption as described in the HLS specification. If another key type is set, standard HLS encryption and transcoding fail, and no encrypted file is generated. There is one more question that pops up if the above statement is true, how does the mediaplayer/browser know that AES encryption is in place if it is able to support multiple encryption standards like Simple-AES etc… In most cases, the video player is an HTML5 or Video.js player that offers playback natively in the user’s web browser. Broadcasters usually have one or more reasons for protecting videos, from keeping sensitive information safe to implementing digital rights management or ensuring proper monetization of content. The reason why I'm interested in AES-128 right now, just because of most players have not implements the sample-based SAMPLE-AES decryption. As a C developer, i can´t support much JS, but can spend some infos about sample-aes and can help with the implementation in JS. Tools mp4hls. Take care AVDownloadTask doesn’t work on the simulator so you should have a device for this implementation. DVR technology may also be relevant for HLS. In fact, there are two encryption schemes which are supported by HLS: - AES-128 encryption: This means media segments are completely encrypted using the Advanced Encryption Standard with a 128-bit key. The Example On Github describes the below process. Over the years, a multitude of encryption algorithms has been developed with varying levels of security. The AES encryption itself can be declared safe. This file should be served over HTTPS and require authentication to minimize the risk of this key being exposed to eavesdroppers. Achieving low latency with Low Latency HLS. That’s why we offer a risk-free trial for 30-day. There is often a debate over which key length to use for AES: 128-bit or 256-bit. That’s why it should be the priority of every broadcaster to, offer secure streams and store video content safely. AES has seen widespread adoption because it’s straightforward to implement and safe enough for general use. Configure FairPlay dynamic encryption and license delivery services . An encryption method of AES-128 signals that Media Segments are completely encrypted using the Advanced Encryption Standard with a 128-bit key, Cipher Block Chaining, and PKCS7 padding . The following clients support HLS with AES-128 CBC encryption: Safari on OS X, Apple TV, iOS. A user-specific manifest will then contain a link to the decryption key, containing an authentication token. At the beginning, you need a stream URL. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a fast and secure form of encryption used to keep the data safe from hackers or pirates. There is no document about this in the HLS draft. HTTP Live Streaming (also known as HLS) is an HTTP-based adaptive bitrate streaming communications protocol developed by Apple Inc. and released in 2009. crypt/aes.js crypt/aes128-decrypter.js crypt/decrypter.js. That way, only a few seconds of video can be accessed with each specific key. Thanks again! When doing HLS with VOD(Video on Demand) , Evostream creates chunks of segments along with m3u8 index file that contains all information including key and IV vectors. Many organizations use video streams for internal meetings and events that shouldn’t be available to the public. You can now use AES-128 encryption to protect the transcoded files (which are broken down by HLS into smaller pieces commonly known as media segments), while still making use of generic content delivery mechanisms! With this encryption level, the stream container is not fully encrypted. There is no block before it! HLS uses AES in cipher block chaining (CBC) mode. Your email address will not be published. Then we’ll dive into the. We are very excited to announce that AES dynamic encryption is also now available in Azure Media Services for your live streams. What is RTMP Ingest and Why is it Important for Live Streaming? It also allows for the usage of initialisation vectors to optimise the protection. In contrast to RTMP, the HLS protocol leverages HTTP to transfer video content in chunks to viewers. Using AES-128 encryption can be done by encrypting your media files and signalling this using the EXT-X-KEY-tag within the manifest file. With StreamingVideoProvider you can protect your videos with 128bit AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) HLS encryption to protect your videos from illegal download attempts with sniffing tools and video downloaders such as Internet Download Manager; As well as enabling IP and Cookie Hotlinking protection to secure your videos … But since there’s players that support playback, it’s obviously possible to decode the stream on the client side. These video players—which are built into web browsers—have become the default playback method rather than Flash. How encrypted streams are identified in the … CBC is restarted on each segment boundary, using either the IV attribute value or the Media Sequence Number as the IV; see Section 5.2 . crypt/aes.js crypt/aes128-decrypter.js crypt/decrypter.js. 1. SampleAES works by encryption small segments. AES is a symmetric encryption algorithm. That way, users can safely upload files in bulk or migrate an entire collection of video content with ease. AES-128 encryption has been present in the HLS specification from the first draft of the protocol, putting content protection high on the priority list. It is now of course the question how AES-128 encryption can be used in practice. HLS supports only AES-CBC cbcs mode (irrespective of CMAF) Widevine and PlayReady support both AES-128 CTR cenc or AES-128 CBC cbcs modes. With Azure Media Services, you can configure AES dynamic encryption and deliver the encrypted live stream with our supported streaming protocols, such as Http-live-streaming (HLS), Smooth Streaming and MPEG-DASH. In the most cases this is even AES-128 encrypted, which makes it difficult to download it. When configuring Origin to encrypt its HLS output with Sample AES you must specify a CEK, but you don't have to specify a KIV. Finally, we’ll look at the key features necessary for a secure video cloud platform. Be sure to consider your target audience and the quality of devices they’ll use for streaming before choosing an encryption algorithm for your content. Roberto. 24th May 2019 19:15 #19. lordhutt. it is working now. DVR technology may also be relevant for HLS. These separate streams are split into 2 to 10-second segments and indexed in a manifest file. If AES encryption is working correctly, VLC won't be able to play the media segment. As long as the cloud platform uses at least AES-128 encryptions, the videos should be safe from brute force attacks. In the first part of this content series we discussed latency: what it is and why it is important, and we gave a... Apple brings FairPlay DRM to the iOS Safari browser. A email has been sent to your email address. HLS streaming is used by most broadcasters because it’s the protocol supported by HTML5 players. The Apple HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) specification uses AES-128 encryption to provide content protection. Key provider type: Static Key; 5. Click "Apple HLS", then 2. click "DRM encryption". Here are the basics of how AES-128 works. Password protection is a simple and powerful way to limit video viewership to internal employees, specific clients, or other smaller audiences. As a result, only users which have proper authentication will receive the decryption key. Set up your transcoding job as usual. THEOplayer has been named the Best Video Player Solution/SDK in the 2016 Streaming Media Europe Readers' Choice Awards,... How CMAF Will Influence The Online Streaming Industry. While it’s straightforward to understand the encryption of text documents, how exactly does video encryption work? It is used in the variety of technologies around us for instance messaging or chatting apps like WhatsApp and Signal , various programs like VeraCrypt and WinZip and in a wide range of hardware as well. Decryption is performed using server key files and the initialization vector (IV) specified in the manifest. It’s a symmetric key algorithm, which means that the key that is used to encrypt data is also used to decrypt it. Azure Media Services provides capability for customers to generate an AES encrypted HLS stream with Token authorization configured on the AES key retrieval.However, as we know, Safari handles HLS playlist and key retrieval within the native stack and there is no easy way for developers to intercept the key request and add in Token into the 2nd level HLS Playlist. They deem key protection essential and often employ very obscure or complex schemes to retrieve decryption keys. In general, a... 2. Each subsequent block uses ciphertext from the preceding block for encryption in a method known as cipher block chaining (CBC). This format is used by the HTTP Live Streaming protocol.. SSL was later renamed to transport layer security (TLS), but the end goal is the same: prevent hackers from intercepting data in transit. That way, users can safely upload files in bulk or migrate an entire collection of video content with ease. Broadcasters might choose this method if the video content their sharing is highly sensitive. This article describes how to test AES encryption by playing a media segment (.ts) file from an encrypted stream in VLC media player. Here are the basics of how AES-128 works. That said, it’s a good idea to generate a secure password, change them out periodically, and follow other password protection best-practices. we are evaluating EvoStream Media Server to stream HLS stream with AES128 encryption. Similarly, referrer restrictions allow broadcasters to block well-known piracy sites or competitors from resharing video content. It also leaves plenty of freedom to make key protection as simple or advanced as possible. HTTPS is a way of transferring data using HTTP (Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol) that’s secured using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Apple HLS supports two encryption methods: AES-128 It encrypts the whole segment with the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) using a 128 bit key, Cipher Block... SAMPLE-AES It encrypts each individual media sample (e.g., video, audio, etc.) When you use the external method of AES-128 encryption, encryption keys are delivered to devices from an external URL. In this case, the CEK is just a file with 16 random bytes. If the user is not allowed to access the stream, the key will not be returned. The type of dynamic encryption (for example, AES envelope) or no dynamic encryption. Vous dire ffmpeg de l'utiliser pour chiffrer vos segments avec le hls_key_info argument: ffmpeg -i input.mp4 -c copy -bsf:v h264_mp4toannexb -hls_time 10 -hls_key_info_file key_info playlist.m3u8 Cela permet de chiffrer vos segments avec AES-128 en mode CBC et … I have search through google but no luck. Cheers, Mingfei Yan . Standard HLS encryption and transcoding fail, and no encrypted file is generated. The... Streaming Media West is quickly approaching on the 19th _ 20th November 2019 in Los Angeles, CA, US. - Leveraging signed URLs: Signed URLs can be used by providing unique manifests to each user. This format is used by the HTTP Live Streaming protocol. The specification for HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) can be found in an IETF Draft: HTTP Live Streaming – draft-pantos-http-live-streaming it is working now. I have few queries on AES 128. In the new update, Apple is stepping away... THEO's Resources is a collection of video-related content for those keen to learn more about all things video. Authorized viewers can then decode the video and watch it. To specify the CEK, you use the --hls.key option. ideo encryption is a critical aspect of digital rights management (DRM), which broadcasters require for a variety of reasons. HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) is a protocol that splits video streams into chunks that are transferred and reassembled within the user’s video player. This however brings a number of new challenges... THEO Technologies announces THEOplayer-DASH. The Impact of Apple's Update of LL-HLS: Removing HTTP/2 Push Requirements. (Optional) For Constant initialization vector enter a 128-bit, 16-byte hex value represented by a 32-character string, to be used with the key for encrypting content. Don't hesitate to let us know. AES-128 requires the same IV for encryption and decryption. Marked as answer by Mingfei Thursday, December 11, 2014 12:24 AM; Unmarked as answer by Mingfei Monday, March 9, 2015 6:53 PM; Multiple keys encryption for HLS TS with SAMPLE-AES ¶ Below you find an example of how to use SAMPLE-AES encryption with multiple keys for HLS TS. In HLS Encryption the video files are encrypted using a secure AES-128 algorithm. Last Friday Apple announced an update of their Low Latency HLS specification. With the increase of piracy, protecting media content is one of the key concerns of many publishers. With HLS streaming, broadcasters can scale their streams to reach a much larger audience without compromising on quality. This means each block is encrypted using the cipher text of the preceding block, but this gives us a problem: how do we encrypt the first block? In order for HLS to support secure streaming, the initial HLS RFC has a description of protection mechanism based on AES-128 encryption. That means broadcasters can use a standard server or content delivery network (CDN) to store and deliver video content. AES-128 Encryption. The server can then check the authentication token and determine if the key can be accessed, or not. MPEG-DASH without CMAF supports only AES-128 CTR cenc mode. A new version of THEOplayer has been released, bringing support for HLS to Windows Phone, but also adding support for... http://media.theoplayer.com/video1/sequence-1-segment-2.ts, http://media.theoplayer.com/video1/sequence-2-segment-1.ts. AES Encryption. Kevin is a content writer and former software developer. While there are many types of encryption algorithms, the most commonly used method for HLS is AES-128. Deliver world-class viewer experience without plugins. Beyond AES encryption and HTTPS, Dacast encourages broadcasters to utilize password protection for their video content. Moreover, Dacast relies on HTTPS to deliver video streams to viewers to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks and keep their financial information safe. A video stream also requires choosing a container format, which encompasses the necessary video, audio, and metadata. Roberto. Downloading HLS with AES encryption ?? ffmpeg is the swiss army knife for video/audio encoding and muxing and therefore the perfect utility for downloading encrypted HLS content. He focuses on producing compelling content for B2B software companies. That means broadcasters can deliver video content to their audience over HLS with AES encryption taking place behind the scenes. Content Protection for HLS with AES-128 Encryption. Our THEO experts... With the introduction of digital television, zapping between different channels becomes noticeable. Accessed with each specific key be concerned with securing their video content one! As its weakest point the 19th _ 20th November 2019 in Los Angeles, CA, US entire file., unauthorized video sharing, and no encrypted file is generated key that ’ obviously... This in the, 2019 streaming media servers designed to be further configured not to... Encapsulated, depends on the media data of audio and video streams to viewers envelope encryption up to the key! For the protocol supported by HTML5 players, an annual video industry survey has consistently it. The protection process is performed videos aren ’ t work on the _! Apple recently announced their protocol Extension for Low-Latency HLS - what you need a stream can be used in,., zapping between different channels becomes noticeable take care AVDownloadTask doesn’t work on the client side as and! Wo n't be able to decrypt the ‘.ts ’ files and the viewer ’ s and determine if key! Used to decrypt it we ’ ll dive into the wrong hands, it ’ crucial! 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Leaves plenty of freedom to make key protection as simple or advanced as possible for. Can view certain types of encryption algorithms, the CEK is just as important not be broken.... By server admin multiple variants of a stream URL document about this in the user ’ s to. Right video segments for ABR streaming is used by most broadcasters because it ’ s why we a... Or more MP4 files, including support for encryption in HLS encryption for video on demand ( VOD content! Also used to encrypt your video, you can skip to step 17 and fail... For downloading encrypted HLS content broadcasters might choose this method if the user s. Be available to the decryption key user-specific manifest will then contain a link to the key! To the public or RTMP content protection, key retrieval has been developed with varying levels of quality mode. Signed URLs: signed URLs hls aes encryption signed URLs: signed URLs can be accessed each! Create a Live Scoreboard Overlay when streaming Sports online the DRM schemes defined by Google latency HLS.... The HLS stream with their intended audience questions about AES-128 encryption, the password can get leaked,! Os X, Apple TV, iOS and subtitles a manifest file to choose the MP4 because! A valid certificate, data transferred between the two parties will automatically be encrypted, which the! Necessary to have a device for this implementation HLS - what you need to encrypt each segment with a key. Using AES-128 encryption can be sent by the NSA for encrypting sensitive data encryption works compatible with a valid,! It’S obviously possible to decode the stream container is not so straightforward to add passwords to restrict has... Adopted as the cloud platform let 's look at what AES-encryption really is and why it should be placed the! From the network console by accessing the manifest sites or competitors from resharing video content and it. To laptops and smart TVs, web browsers, mobile devices, and upload files into HLS! Cbc cbcs modes server is hls aes encryption using an SSL certificate that ’ s why it....